Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. are the ciliary processes. The ciliary processes are the sites of aqueous humor production. The ciliary processes been shown to have increased basal and lateral interdigitations, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium, a thinner layer of ciliary stroma, and Panaxtriol increased numbers of cellular organelles and gap junctions as compared to other regions of the ciliary body [6]. The epithelium of the ciliary processes has two layers: an inner, non-pigmented Panaxtriol layer in contact with the aqueous humor in the posterior chamber, and an external, pigmented layer in contact with the ciliary process stroma. The apical surfaces of the two layers lie in apposition to each other [7, 8]. The non-pigmented ciliary epithelium represents the continuation of the retina; the pigmented epithelium, the continuation of the retinal pigmented epithelium [9]. The posterior part of the ciliary body, called the Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves supply the ciliary body. Parasympathetic fibers come from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus Rabbit Polyclonal to IL-2Rbeta (phospho-Tyr364) [10] and pterygopalatine ganglion [11]. Sympathetic fibers originate from the cervical superior ganglion and from the carotid plexus [10], and sensory fibers originate from the trigeminal ganglion by way of the ophthalmic nerve. The limbus is a transitional zone between the cornea and the sclera. On its inner surface is an identation, the scleral sulcus, which has a sharp posterior margin, the scleral spur and an inclined anterior border that extends to the peripheral cornea [12, 13]. The trabecular meshwork is the structure that overpasses the scleral sulcus and converts it into a circular channel, called Schlemms canal. The TM is a triangular, porous structure, in cross section, that consists of connective tissue surrounded by endothelium. TM can be divided in three components: uveal meshwork, corneoscleral meshwork and juxtacanalicular meshwork [14]. Sympathetic innervation of the TM originates from the superior sympathetic ganglion. Parasympathetic innervation derives from the ciliary ganglion. Sensory nerves originate from the trigeminal ganglion [15]. The uveal meshwork forms the lateral border of the anterior chamber, extending from the iris root and ciliary body to the peripheral cornea. The uveal meshwork consists of bands of connective tissue, with irregular openings that measure between 25 to 75m [16]. The corneoscleral meshwork extends from the scleral spur to the anterior wall of the scleral sulcus and is the most extensive portion of the TM. It is composed of perforated sheets that become progressively smaller nearing Schlemms canal (Flocks 1956). The corneoscleral meshwork is organized into four concentric layers, viz. from within outwards connective tissue with collagen fiber layer, elastic fiber layer, glass membrane layer (delicate filaments embedded in ground substance) and endothelial layer [17-19]. The outermost part of Panaxtriol the trabecular meshwork, composed of a layer of connective tissue lined on either side by endothelium, is called the juxtacanalicular meshwork [20]. The central connective tissue layer has variable thickness and is non-fenestrated and.