Category: Steroid Hormone Receptors

DAB labeling is present in presynaptic terminals surrounding synaptic vesicle structures

DAB labeling is present in presynaptic terminals surrounding synaptic vesicle structures. number of inclusions per animal, average number of inclusions per area (mean (SEM)) and average density (inclusions/mm3) (mean (SEM)) are shown for each mouse in rows 2-7. Group data is shown in row 8. 40478_2020_1026_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15K) GUID:?9DF0218B-9FBD-4D70-8219-33AA9C07283C Additional file 3: Table S3. Mean and SEM group data following Intramuscular PFF injection. A total of 8 A53T SynGFP mice were included in this analysis, with 3-4 animals per group. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined for 12 groups consisting of 3 brain areas (cortex, midbrain, pons) in in two conditions (motor and control), at 2 timepoints (4 and 8 months4- and 8-months post-injection (mpi)). The number and location of the specific ROIs differed from mouse to mouse based on subtle variations in serial sectioning. The number of regions of interest (ROIs) analyzed, the mean, and SEM of the density of inclusions in each ROI (mm2) are included in columns 2-4. 40478_2020_1026_MOESM3_ESM.docx (12K) GUID:?B6DC964F-AA39-4476-8D9C-8A0F482BAE25 Additional file 4: Figure S1. Electron Micrographs and CLEM images show that A53T SynGFP localizes to presynaptic terminals in the striatum and cortex. a DAB/p-129 alpha-synuclein from the striatum of a SynGFP mouse. DAB labeling is present in presynaptic terminals surrounding synaptic vesicle structures. Scale bar 500?nm. b Inset from Fig. S1a demonstrating an example of DAB/p-129 alpha-synuclein labeled vesicles in a nerve terminal (NT) making an asymmetrical synaptic contact (arrow) onto an underlying dendritic spine (SP). Scale bar 500?nm. c Electron Microscopy (EM) image from CLEM processed tissue from the cortex of a SynGFP mouse. Scale bar 500?nm. d Inset from Fig. S1c showing two nerve terminals (NT) making asymmetrical synaptic contacts (arrows) onto a dendrite (DEND). Scale bar 500?nm. e The same EM image as Fig. S1c with an overlay of the fluorescent SynGFP signal captured from the same location using MAPS software creating a Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) image. SynGFP image localizes to vesicles in presynaptic terminals. Scale bar 500?nm. Rivaroxaban Diol f Inset from Rivaroxaban Diol Fig. S1e depicting a CLEM image of the same location shown in Fig. S1d with co-localization of the fluorescent SynGFP signal with vesicles in two nerve terminals (NT) making asymmetrical synaptic contacts (arrows) onto a dendrite (DEND). Scale bar 500?nm. 40478_2020_1026_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (4.6M) GUID:?41F595E3-248F-43FB-B5D2-6829F1680368 Additional file 5: Figure S2. PFF injection into Thy1-GFP transgenic mice does not induce GFP-positive Lewy pathology. a Top: PFF injection into A53T SynGFP Tg mice induces robust GFP-positive Lewy pathology 40?days post-injection that colocalizes well with the established Lewy marker pSyn. Bottom: PFF injection into GFP-only Tg mice induces less robust pSyn-positive Lewy pathololgy 4?months post-injection that does not colocalize well with GFP, demonstrating that it is composed of endogenous mouse alpha-synuclein. Scale bar 50?m. b Left: A single A53T SynGFP Lewy inclusion shown at different planes in the Z-axis. Middle: Inclusion from a GFP-only animal shown in similar fashion. Right: Group data of Igfbp5 Lewy pathology in A53T SynGFP Tg and GFP-only Tg mice, limited to neurons that express the respective transgene, shows a high level of colocalization between GFP fluorescence and pSyn only in A53T Syn-GFP animals (Pearsons coefficient: A53T SynGFP-pSyn 0.81??0.05%, GFP-pSyn: 0.25??0.06; unpaired test p? ?0.0001; N?=?3-5 cells/3 animals per group), demonstrating that even within neurons that have endogenous mouse alpha-synuclein inclusions and that express the GFP-only transgene, there is no incorporation of GFP into the inclusion. Scale bar 5?m. 40478_2020_1026_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (695K) GUID:?2D2D2E11-0101-4C86-B2A1-61ABDF9DFEE4 Additional file 6: Figure S3. Cortical Lewy pathology induced by PFF injection into A53T SynGFP mice is associated with cell death. a Left: WT mouse cortex at postnatal day 10, when developmental programmed cell death is known to occur, shows TUNEL positive cells with no aggregated pSyn Lewy pathology (positive control). Middle: A53T SynGFP cortex 40?days post-PFF injection shows TUNEL positive cells bearing somatic pSyn Lewy inclusions. Inset highlights example shown in yellow rectangle at higher magnification. Right: Uninjected A53T SynGFP cortex shows no TUNEL positive cells and no somatic Lewy pathology. Several nuclei are enriched with pSyn staining. Scale bar 50?m. b Group data showing percent of nuclei that are TUNEL positive in each group (P10-11: 0.87??0.41%, A53T SynGFP?+?PFF: 0.63??0.39%, A53T SynGFP: 0.0??0.0%; one-way ANOVA (F(2, 12)?=?7.035, p?=?0.0095), post hoc Tukey tests: P10-11 vs. Rivaroxaban Diol A53T SynGFP?+?PFF p?=?0.5153, P10-11 vs. A53T SynGFP p?=?0.0096, A53T SynGFP?+?PFF vs. A53T SynGFP p?=?0.0319; N?=?4-7 ROIs/2-3 animals per group). 40478_2020_1026_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (847K) GUID:?85725249-57A5-4180-9BDD-77E03CC3D646 Additional file 7: Figure S4. PFF but not monomeric alpha-synuclein injection into mouse brain induces Lewy pathology. a Monomer or PFF striatal injections were done in A53T SynGFP animals at 5-8?months-old, with sacrifice 9?months later (14-17?months old). Brain sections were processed for DAB immunohistochemistry, labeling pSyn-positive Lewy pathology. Top row: Monomer Rivaroxaban Diol injections showed.

The ability of different glycosphingolipids (GSLs) to activate type I natural killer T cells (NKT cells) has been known for 2 decades

The ability of different glycosphingolipids (GSLs) to activate type I natural killer T cells (NKT cells) has been known for 2 decades. of type I NKT cells in real time binding assays with Asiaticoside high affinity, only a few activate type I NKT cells in or experiments. The differences in biological responses are likely a result of different pharmacokinetic properties of each lipid, which carry modifications at different parts of the molecule. Our results indicate a need to perform a variety of assays to ascertain the therapeutic potential of type I NKT cell GSL activators. within 90 min. Since this initial discovery, many glycolipids have been studied that sway the response of the immune system predominantly toward either a Th1 or a Th2 response (12). One of the earliest Th1 skewing lipids studied to date is ? and ? difference electron density maps using COOT (33). The GSLs were built into 2? map and refined using REFMAC (34). Refmac geometric libraries for the glycolipids were obtained using the PRODRG server (35). Data collection and refinement statistics are summarized in Table 1. TABLE 1 Refinement statistics for the CD1d-GSL-TCR complexes NA means not available. (?)78.6, 149.7, 101.479.4, 150.4, 102.579.6, 191.9, 151.979.1, 191.4, 151.379.4, 150.3, 100.8????, , ()90, 96.5,9090, 96.4, 9090, 90, 9090, 90, 9090, 96.2, 90????Resolution range (?) (outer shell)40C3.2 (3.31C3.2)40C3.1 (3.15C3.1)66.21C2.60 (2.71C2.60)95.7C2.9 (3.06C2.9)500C3.05 (3.12C3.05)????No. of reflections38,28642,69434,68125,09244,418????(37), and is related to the previously crystallized SMC124 lipid (16). The sugar headgroup and fatty acid chain; = 247 86 nm) and GCK152 (= 197 22 nm) show the lowest V14V8.2 TCR affinity. This is similar to the affinity reported for the parent -C-GalCer (= Asiaticoside 247 nm) (36) but is 10-fold weaker than GalCer, which in our hands ranges in affinity from 11 to 25 nm (18, 29). Of note, the binding affinity is still high compared with mouse TCR affinities for MHC-presented peptides, which most often are in the micromolar range (39, 40). The higher affinity group is composed of the NC-GC (= 37.1 14.10 nm), similar to NU-GC (36), EF77 (44.7 0.4 nm), and 7DW8-5 (94 2.8 nm). The division into lower and higher affinity groups was not maintained in the SPR evaluation using the human being V24V11 TCR and human being Compact disc1d (Fig. 2values of 6.85 2.6 and 3.4 2.71 m, respectively. The additional lipids had identical affinity to GalCer, which inside our hands runs from 1 to 3 m. GCK127 (1.45 0.05 m) and NC-GC (1.45 0.35 m) were virtually identical, and 7DW8-5 led to the best TCR affinity (1.13 0.9 m). We mentioned that in the mouse studies the off-rate for the type I NKT cell TCR for both GCK127 and GCK152 (= 1.28 0.0014 10?2 and 1.66 0.0016 10?2 s?1, respectively) is 10 times faster than the other ligands, including GalCer (= 2.2 0.52 10?3 s?1) (data not shown), but is similar to -C-GalCer (36). Therefore, we assume that the GCK glycolipids were not able to induce the closure of the roof over the CD1d F pocket. As reported previously, some GSLs like GalCer induce RHOC the formation of the F roof closure prior to TCR docking by orienting CD1d side chains at Leu-84, Val-149, and Leu-150 to an optimal conformation for engagement by the TCR CDR3 residue Leu-99. The pre-formed F roof closure has been correlated with a slower off-rate of the type I NKT cell TCR (41). In the human SPR studies, we noted that the off-rates for all the GSLs were similar, likely due to the inability of human CD1d to pre-form the closed F roof, as the Leu-84 of mouse CD1d is altered to Phe-84 in human CD1d, and a fully closed F roof has not been observed in the hCD1d-GalCer structure (42). Open in a separate window FIGURE 2. Real time TCR binding kinetics. Binding of refolded mouse V14V8.2 TCR (showing the binding response of increasing concentrations of TCR (GCK152; GCK127; NC-GC; 7DW8-5; EF77. CD1d is shown in and 2M in and TCR chain in NC-GC; EF77; 7DW8-5; GCK152; GCK127. dual binding motif for acyl chain of 7DW8-5. 2electron density is drawn as a around the glycolipid (GCK127; GCK152; NC-GC; 7DW8-5; EF77; overlay of NC-GC (and cell-based assay in which an A20 B cell lymphoma cell line transfected with CD1d was pulsed with Asiaticoside 100 ng of the indicated GSL and co-cultured with a V14V8.2 NKT cell hybridoma (1.2). TCR engagement was measured after 24 h through IL-2 production in serum measured with a sandwich ELISA. Data represent samples in triplicate and are representative of three independent experiments. human type I NKT cells were activated by human.