All authors read and authorized the final manuscript. and statistical analysis was performed using Empower (R) (http://www.empowerstats.com, X&Y solutions, Inc. Boston MA) and R (http://www.R-project.org). 3. Results 3.1. General Info of Subjects As demonstrated in Table 1, there were 5506 (43.36%) men and 7192 (56.64%) ladies enrolled in the present study. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 16.00% for those adults, and women experienced a much higher prevalence of thyroid nodules than men (17.74% vs. 13.73%, < 0.001). The median age was 44 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate years, and the median UIC value was 206.09?< 0.05). Table 1 Distribution of characteristics among subjects with and without thyroid nodulesa. (%)<0.001?Male5506 (43.36)4750 (44.53)756 (37.20)?Woman7192 (56.64)5916 (55.47)1276 (62.80)Age, years44.00 (33.00C56.00)42.00 (32.00C53.00)54.00 (44.00C65.00)<0.001Menopause, (%)<0.001?No4428 (62.93)3907 (67.54)521 (41.65)?Yes2608 (37.07)1878 (32.46)730 (58.35)Smoking status, (%)0.001?Nonsmokers9554 (75.24)7967 (74.70)1587 (78.10)?Smokers3144 (24.76)2699 (25.30)445 (21.90)Educational status, (%)<0.001?Absent from education244 (1.93)171 (1.61)73 (3.62)?Main and junior high school3755 (29.78)3012 (28.43)743 (36.87)?Older high school3694 (29.29)3125 (29.50)569 (28.24)?College and above4917 (38.99)4287 (40.46)630 (31.27)Type of salt used, (%)0.707?Iodized12485 (98.52)10489 (98.51)1996 (98.62)?Noniodized187 (1.48)159 (1.49)28 (1.38)Family history of thyroid diseases, (%)0.189?No11950 (94.70)10053 (94.81)1897 (94.10)?Yes669 (5.30)550 (5.19)119 (5.90)BMI, kg/m223.66 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate (21.34C26.04)23.45 (21.18C25.91)24.53 (22.31C26.72)<0.001Waist circumference, cm80.00 (74.00C88.00)80.00 (73.00C87.00)83.00 (76.00C90.00)<0.001Systolic pressure, mmHg120.00 (110.00C130.00)120.00 (109.00C130.00)125.00 (110.00C140.00)<0.001Diastolic pressure, mmHg78.00 (70.00C84.00)78.00 (70.00C82.00)80.00 (70.00C86.00)<0.001TSH, mIU/L2.43 (1.67C3.54)2.46 (1.70C3.56)2.29 (1.52C3.40)<0.001TPOAb, IU/mL8.17 (5.55C11.92)8.18 (5.55C11.98)8.03 (5.58C11.57)0.274TgAb, IU/mL10.00 (10.00C11.74)10.00 (10.00C11.77)10.00 (10.00C11.54)0.181UIC, = 0.076). However, we observed a negative association between UIC and thyroid nodules when UIC was lower than 527?< 0.001), and using LRT, we achieved of 0.018, indicating that a nonlinear relationship existed between UIC and thyroid nodules. However, UIC was negatively correlated with the risk for thyroid nodules in females 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate (OR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91, 0.99; = 0.023) (Table 2). Open in a separate window Number 2 The relationship between UIC and risk of thyroid nodules in adults stratified by sex. Related U-shaped relationship between UIC and thyroid nodules was observed in males, but linear relationship was observed in ladies after modifying for age, educational status, smoking status, type of salt used, family history of thyroid diseases, systolic BCL3 pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference by clean curve fitting. Table 2 Threshold effect analysis for the relationship between UIC and the risk of thyroid nodulesa. connection > 0.05) (Table 3). Table 3 Associations between each 100?interactioninducing proliferation and ER-decreasing proliferation and advertising apoptosis . When estrogen level was higher, the balance between ER-and ER-would become affected, which was beneficial to proliferation. This response was more pronounced in females . And estrogen can inhibit the manifestation of sodium iodide symporter (NIS), which performed an important function in iodine transportation of thyroid gland . Gender distinctions between UIC and thyroid nodules the consequence of complicated connections of sex human hormones probably, iodine, and thyrocyte, which have to be explored additional. Our research has some restrictions. First, place UIC isn’t stable since it is certainly influenced by diet as well as the level of hydration . Nevertheless, variants balance out in many examples [10 generally, 33], and UIC is certainly a well-accepted sign of iodine position that’s useful for evaluation at the populace level . Furthermore, the cross-sectional character of today’s study also indicated that people were not able to look for the systems underlying the noticed phenomena. Extra cohort studiesor various other studies that may describe a causal relationshipneed to become executed. 5. Conclusions To conclude, the result of iodine on thyroid nodules might differ between people. For guys, UIC and thyroid nodules were related when UIC was less than 527 negatively?g/L, plus they had a positive craze when UIC was greater than 527?g/L though it statistically had not been significant. For women, it appeared that higher UIC was from the existence of thyroid nodules negatively. Sex differences, as 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate a result, might be considered in the usage of technological iodine supplements. In the foreseeable future, extra studies that may explain causality ought to be conducted to permit researchers to explore the interactions between iodine position and thyroid nodules. Acknowledgments We wish to give thanks to the personnel who took component in this research aswell as Xiao Chen who helped books searching. This research was supported with the International Co-operation Base from the Ministry of Wellness from the People’s Republic of China (2009), the International Medical Exchange Base of China, and the analysis of the Interactions between Iodine Position and HLA-DQ Allele Polymorphisms on Thyroid Illnesses in Wuhan Community. Abbreviations UIC:Urinary iodine concentrationTNs:Thyroid nodulesTSH:Serum thyrotropinTPOAb:Thyroid peroxidase antibodiesTgAb:Thyroglobulin antibodiesLRT check:Likelihood-ratio check. Data Availability The datasets produced and/or analyzed through the current research are available through the corresponding writer on reasonable demand. Conflicts 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate appealing The authors declare that there surely is no conflict appealing about the publication of the article. Authors’ Efforts The author’s duties were the following: Weiping Teng and Zhongyan Shan designed the analysis and.