and N.S.; Task administration, R.W., Q.S., G.L. them are involved in DNA replication, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine essential genes/proteins and networks targeted by SCS to exert inhibiting the development of colorectal malignancy function. This study offered great insights into Dolastatin 10 developing food-derived novel therapeutics Dolastatin 10 for colorectal malignancy treatment. = TIAM1 3). Different superscript characters for each column show significant variations ( 0.05) as compared to every other group. 2.2. SCS Induces Cell Cycle Arrest of HT-29 Cells To investigate whether the anti-proliferative effect of SCS is due to cell cycle arrest, the proportion of cells from different cell cycle phases (including G0/G1, S and Dolastatin 10 G2) was identified using circulation cytometry. SCS treatment resulted in an increase in G0/G1 phase cell proportion in HT-29 cell (Number 1C). In contrast, SCS treatment did not alter the proportion of cells from different phases of the cell cycle in normal colon cell collection NCM460 (Number 1B). The period from mitosis to DNA replication, also known as G1 phase of synthesis [14,15], during which RNA and ribosomes are primarily synthesized [16,17]. This phase is characterized by active metabolism, quick synthesis of RNA and protein and significant increase in cell volume. This phase is definitely to prepare material and energy for the S phase where DNA replication happens [18,19]. Therefore, prolonging G0/G1 phase can efficiently delay cells from entering S phase, block DNA synthesis and decrease proliferation activity. A number of anti-cancer drugs works by inducing cell cycle arrest such as Neuronal pentraxin [20] and ZNF674-AS1 [21]. Our results suggest that causing cell cycle arrest is part of the SCS antitumor mechanism. 2.3. SCS Induces Apoptosis Circulation cytometry analysis was performed to quantify the percentage of apoptotic cells after SCS treatment (Number 1D,E, Table S1). In HT-29, the percentage of apoptotic cells was up to ~50% after 400 g/mL SCS treatment, whereas SCS treatment experienced little effect on NCM460 Dolastatin 10 cells. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy further confirmed the stimulatory effect of SCS within the apoptosis of HT-29 (Number 1F). Compared with NCM460 cells, the HT-29 cells exhibited a designated increase in apoptosis, exhibiting pronounced nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies. The lack of apoptosis is an important feature of tumor cells [22,23]. Singh (2019) has shown the apoptosis level of colorectal malignancy and adenoma is definitely significantly reduced [24]. The current treatment methods primarily focus on advertising the apoptosis of malignancy cells [25]. Our results indicate that SCS can induce apoptosis of colon cancer HT-29 cells with little impact on normal colon cells. 2.4. SCS Activates the Manifestation of Apoptotic Enzymes Since our results display that SCS can induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell collection, we wanted to determine whether SCS activate specific enzymes involved in cell apoptosis. Caspase is definitely a family of proteases that play an important part in the process of apoptosis. Caspase 3 belongs to CED-3 subfamily of caspase family. It is a key enzyme in the process of apoptosis, which is called apoptosis executive enzyme [26,27]. The high manifestation of Caspase-3 shows the event of apoptosis [28]. When compared with control, the Caspase-3 in SCS-treated HT-29 cells was improved, Dolastatin 10 and a reduction of more than 1051.23 0.07 nmol/g on 400 g/mL, NCM460 was only 412.07 0.11 nmol/g (Figure 1G). These results indicate that SCS can induce apoptosis of colorectal malignancy HT-29 cells, which is consistent with the results of annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method (Number 1E). ATP, as the most important energy molecule, takes on an important part in various physiological and pathological processes of cells [25]. The switch of ATP level affected the function of cells. Generally, the level of ATP decreases when the cells are in apoptosis, necrosis or some harmful state [29]. After SCS treatment, the cell ATP activity is definitely shown in Number 1H. SCS did not cause the switch of ATP in NCM460 cells, but it could significantly decrease the ATP value in HT-29 cells. Under 400 g/mL treatment, the ATP value in HT-29 cells decreased.