7). when compared to the respective solitary substance treatments. The arithmetic means and standard deviation of at least three self-employed experiments are demonstrated. Western blots within the combination of everolimus plus AR-A014418 showed no stronger inhibiton of GSK3 after combination treatment, compared to solitary AR-A014418 treatment, in the resistant cell lines. NIHMS975995-product-02.tiff (484K) GUID:?3013E428-10A1-423C-8114-58A7F7234582 03: Supplementary Fig. 3 Western blot quantification of IRS-1 protein levels and pIRS-1 of four independently performed Western blots shows down-regulation of IRS-1 protein levels in the resistant cell lines. Sensitive BON1 and BON1 Control DMSO cells showed a slightly stronger increase in IRS-1 protein levels after everolimus treatment, compared to the resistant cells according to the Western blot quantification. In addition, in the non-resistant cells BYL719 treatment was accompanied by improved IRS-1 protein manifestation, while in the resistant cells a lesser, but nevertheless a definite increase in IRS-1 protein levels was observed in response to BYL719 treatment. The BYL719/everolimus combination treatment showed a strong increase of IRS-1 manifestation in the non-resistant BON1 and BON1 Control DMSO cells, and a lesser, but still obvious increase in IRS-1 protein levels in the resistant cells. For pIRS-1 levels the variations between the resistant and sensitive cell lines were small. NIHMS975995-product-03.tif (1.5M) GUID:?3B4DEAB8-6BFF-42C6-8113-C3DD3048BA5A 04. NIHMS975995-product-04.tif (1.6M) GUID:?5AA4DA97-A115-447C-9373-7BD749F52244 05: Suppl. Fig. 4 Western blot analysis showed related mTORC1 manifestation in the resistant and sensitive cell lines, while pmTORC1 could not be recognized in the cell lines investigated. NIHMS975995-product-05.tif (1.2M) GUID:?1A42221D-5D71-42C8-B6CF-39225BFE8E68 06: Suppl. Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8 Significant synergistic effects of BYL719 plus everolimus at low therapeutically-relevant doses in BON1 (Suppl. Fig. 5), BON1 Control DMSO (Suppl. Fig. 6), BON1 RR1 (Suppl. Fig. 7) and BON1 RR2 (Suppl. Fig. 8) cell lines. Matrix of the cell collection proliferation together with the mean is definitely demonstrated. Each graph shows the vehicle-treated control (gray), BYL719 (green), everolimus (reddish) and the combination of both (blue). In the columns, the Byl719 concentration, in the rows, the everolimus concentration is definitely increasing. The sign * shows synergism, assessed from the linear combined effects model. NIHMS975995-product-06.tif (649K) GUID:?A47C2A61-EE46-43FB-BAC9-8AAF018346FB 07. NIHMS975995-product-07.tif (645K) GUID:?67D67525-D1F4-4C1C-BBA5-F3B7F63ECD56 08. NIHMS975995-product-08.tif (680K) GUID:?1942DBA2-AA70-4866-8B37-3858525725C0 09. NIHMS975995-product-09.tif (654K) GUID:?3AD6CCBB-2F94-4DEB-A574-DC880B1725EE 10: Suppl. Fig. 9 Caspase 3/7 assay in all cell lines after BYL719/everolimus combination treatment: Caspase 3/7 assay showed a significant decrease in apoptosis in response to BYL719/everolimus CIT combination treatment in the resistant cell lines, but not in the sensitive cell lines. NIHMS975995-product-10.tif (789K) GUID:?260B892C-A6E9-429D-90BD-C57726346110 11: Isorhamnetin-3-O-neohespeidoside Suppl. Fig. 10 Imaging of the orthotopic intrapancreatic everolimus-resistant tumor xenograft mouse model by preclinical PET/MRI: BON1 RR2 cells were inoculated into the pancreas of a 12 week aged SCID Isorhamnetin-3-O-neohespeidoside mouse: axial T2w (A-C) and coronal T1w (D) images confirm tumor growth (arrow). The tumor was first recognized in the pancreas 14 days after inoculation (A) and monitored during growth after 28 days (B) and 48 days (C). On day time 48 the tumor reached 1000 mm3 and showed normal development of necrotic areas in the tumor core (hypointense areas). Fused 18FDG CPET/MRI (E) confirms high FDG uptake (SUV: .4 %ID/g) reflecting a strong metabolic activity and Ga68DOTATOC-PET/MRI in coronal look at (F) shows no Ga68DOTATOC uptake due to absent SSTR2. NIHMS975995-product-11.tif (1.6M) GUID:?D7594143-F83F-4461-B454-FC0EBEAA4059 Abstract Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs) are often inoperable at diagnosis. The mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus has been approved for the treatment of advanced NETs. However, the regular development of resistance to everolimus limits its clinical effectiveness. We founded two self-employed everolimus-resistant panNET (BON1) cell lines (BON1 RR1, BON1 RR2) to find potential mechanisms of resistance. After 24 weeks of long term exposure to 10 nM everolimus, BON1 RR1 and BON1 RR2 showed stable resistance with cellular survival rates of 96.70% (IC50=5200 nM) and 92.30% (IC50=2500 nM), respectively. The control cell collection showed sensitivity to 10 nM everolimus with cellular survival declining to 54.70% (IC50=34 nM). Both resistant cell lines did not regain sensitivity over time and showed persistent stable resistance after a drug holiday of 13 weeks. The mechanisms of resistance in our cell collection model included morphological adaptations, G1 cell cycle arrest associated with reduced CDK1(cdc2) Isorhamnetin-3-O-neohespeidoside manifestation and decreased autophagy. Cellular migration potential was improved and indirectly linked to c-Met activation. GSK3 was over-activated in association with reduced basal IRS-1 protein levels. Specific GSK3 inhibition strongly decreased BON1 RR1/RR2 cell survival. The combination of everolimus with the PI3K inhibitor BYL719 re-established everolimus sensitivity through GSK3 inhibition and repair of autophagy. We suggest that GSK3 over-activation combined with decreased basal IRS-1 protein levels and decreased autophagy may be a crucial feature of everolimus resistance, and hence a possible restorative target. resistance to everolimus treatment offers only been little studied to day (Capurso et al. 2012; Passacantilli et al. 2014; Vandamme et al. 2016), and thus there is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms of.